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智Man中年特訓 The Smart Man’s Guide to Surviving “Thirty-Year Crisis”

健康

30歲對於男士來說是人生的黃金時代,一方面事業逐漸見到成績,另一方面亦開始組織家庭,為人生的下半場打好基礎。但不少男士都覺得,30歲以後身體狀態大不如前,影響外型之外,嚴重時更會影響情緒。

 

就看看屈臣氏註冊中醫師、藥劑師及營養師為大家逐點破解3大男士危機!

30 is the golden age for men – on one hand you are beginning to achieve success at work and your career is starting to build momentum; on the other hand you are ready to start your own family, establishing a solid foundation for later life. However, most men experience some decline in body condition once they reach 30, affecting physique and, in more serious cases, mental health.


Let's see what our Watsons Chinese Medicine Practioners, Pharmacists and Dietitians have up their sleeves to help you combat the 3 most common male health concerns!

特訓1: 努力爆髮

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醫學上,脫髮發禿頭被稱為雄激素性脫髮。除了基因因素外,荷爾蒙的變化是引致脫髮的主要原因。睪酮素及其代謝產物雙氫睪酮是雄性荷爾蒙,令男性有其性徵如鬍鬚及腋毛的生長、變聲及肌肉生長等。有趣的是,原來當雄性荷爾蒙過多會引致脫髮問題。當頭髮毛囊被過多雙氫睪酮剌激,會逐漸縮小。另外亦有其他說法形容脫髮是因為頭皮組織變硬引致發炎狀況以及減少血流量,令毛囊所接收的養分減少,繼而令毛囊萎縮。雖然脫髮問題較常見於男性,但其實也有機會發生在女性身上。

For male, the medical condition to describe male pattern hair loss is “androgenic alopecia”. Although typically occurring in men, it can also occur in women. Genetics does seem to play a role in the risk of androgenic alopecia. In addition to genetics, it is thought that dihydrotestosterone (DHT),a metabolite of testosterone, also play a role in causing hair loss,. Excessive DHT will shrink hair follicles then leads to hair loss.

脫髮問題亦有可能由其他原因引致,如心理壓力、缺鐵及甲狀腺功能減退等。藥物使用亦有可能引致脫髮現象,如薄血藥物、荷爾蒙療程(包括甲狀腺素及雄激素等)、精神科藥物(如抗抑鬱藥、抗精神病藥及鋰劑等),以及癌症化療藥物。

Sometimes there are other reasons for hair loss, such as long term medical conditions (Hypothyroid, Iron deficiency), psychological stress and medications (Anticoagulant, antidepressants).

要改善脫髮問題,日常生活上要注意均衡飲食;避免過份扭擰、摩擦、拉扯頭髮;也避免梳過緊的髮型,倒如辮子、髮髻或馬尾;更要用溫和力度洗髮和梳髮。

To improve the conditions, lifestyle modification such as balanced diet, gentle hair care are essential. Avoiding tight hairstyles, such as braids, buns or ponytails; avoiding compulsively twisting, rubbing or pulling your hair.

如經檢查後是雄激素性脫髮,有機會可以使用外用或口服藥物:
1. 米諾地爾 (Minoxidil) 洗髮水或頭髮噴劑 這項藥物無需醫生處方,可在藥劑師監督下銷售。市面上產品濃度通常為2-5%。用法為每天兩次用於受影響部位剌激頭髮生長,應持續使用以維持效果。有機會出現的副作用包括皮膚敏感及低血壓,使用前應先諮詢醫生或藥劑師的意見。


2. 非那斯特箂(Finasteride)為需醫生處方的口服藥物,只適用於男性,其成份與某些治療前列腺問題的藥物相同,但份量不同。藥物需使用最少一年才有理想效果。有機會出現的副作用包括於性行為及情緒上的困難,使用前應先諮詢醫生或藥劑師的意見。


3. 藥物以外,亦可考慮植髮及放射性治療。

If you are diagnosed with male pattern hair loss, you may consider to use the following medications under medical supervision:


1. Minoxidil spray or foam; Minoxidil is a non-prescription medication that can be sold under the supervision of a pharmacist. It is available in different strengths from 2 to 5%. Usually apply topically twice per day on the affected area to improve hair growth, long term treatment is required to maintain its effect. Possible side effects include skin rash or low blood pressure. Consult a Doctor or pharmacist before use.


2. Finasteride tablet; Finasteride is a prescription-only medication and only suitable for male patient. It have a same ingredient as certain Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) medication but in a smaller dose. The effects take half to one year to be seen. Possible side effects include sexual dysfunction. Consult a Doctor or pharmacist before use.


3. Other than medications, you can explore hair transplant and low-level laser treatment with a dermatologist or plastic surgeon.

從中醫學角度,腎華在髮,腎氣充足,則毛髮豐盈。「五八腎氣衰,髮墮齒稿」,隨年紀漸長,腎氣漸虛,自然易見脫髮問題。可藉中藥或針灸補腎益精,固髮生髮。飲食方面可多進食入腎補腎的黑色食物,例如黑豆,黑芝麻,黑木耳等等。

In traditional Chinese medicine, hair is the external manifestation of kidney, which means that the condition of hair reflects the status of kidney qi. Voluminous and lustrous hair can be seen in persons with abundant kidney qi. One of the famous traditional Chinese medicine classics, named Huangdi Neijing (Huangdi’s Internal Classic), states that kidney qi depletes at the age of 40s, resulting in hair loss and withered teeth. Diminishing in kidney qi happens during ageing, leading to the problem of hair loss. Chinese medicine and acupuncture can help nourish the kidney and replenish essence, thus promoting the growth of hair. Besides, eating black-coloured food adequately, such as black soybean, black sesame, black fungus etc. can also help tonify the kidney.

特訓2: 克服脂「慌」


Training 2: Get rid of excess body fat

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體重隨着年紀增長及生活習慣而改變。西方醫學普遍以身體質量指數(Body Mass Index,簡稱BMI)為肥瘦程度作一個簡單的區分。於亞洲人而言,BMI等於或大於23便屬於超重,大於28則為肥胖。長遠而言,肥胖及過重增加心血管、糖尿等患病風險,對健康百害而無一利。

綜合註冊營養師及藥劑師的意見,肥胖主要有以下的常見成因:
• 新陳代謝率下降
• 肌肉流失
• 缺乏運動
• 生活習慣改變(如長期於辦公室工作)減少能量消耗

Changes in body weight can be related to ageing and lifestyle changes. Body Mass Index (BMI) is commonly used in assessing weight status. Asians with a BMI of 23 or above are considered overweight, while those with a BMI of 25 or greater are classed as obese.
Being overweight or obese is one of the risk factors for developing chronic diseases such as cardiovascular diseases and diabetes.

綜合註冊營養師及藥劑師的意見,肥胖主要有以下的常見成因:


• 新陳代謝率下降
• 肌肉流失
• 缺乏運動
• 生活習慣改變(如長期於辦公室工作)減少能量消耗
• 外出飲食次數增加導致過量攝取油、鹽及糖分
• 缺乏適當睡眠使食慾或饑餓感大增
• 長期服用藥物(如某些精神科藥物)的副作用
• 家族遺傳

According to registered dietitians and pharmacists, some common causes of obesity are:


• Reduction in basal metabolic rate
• Muscle wasting
• Physical inactivity
• Decrease in energy expenditure due to lifestyle changes (e.g. sedentary work)
• Excessive intake of fat, salt and sugar due to eating out more often
• Increase in appetite related to sleep deprivation
• Side effects of medications (e.g. psychiatric drugs)
• Genetic factors

持之以恆的良好生活習慣可以對抗中年發福:


• 循序漸進提升運動次數,建議目標為每星期至少5次30分鐘或以上帶氧運動,以維持新陳代謝及保持肌肉質量
• 減少外出用膳,與營養師定立妥善的飲食計劃,以一般體重為65至70公斤的健康成年男士計算,每日建議攝取1950至2100卡路里的熱量。
• 飲食方面,多選擇「三低一高」 - 高膳食纖維、低脂肪、低糖、低鈉的食品/ 飲品
• 保持充足睡眠,減少非必要的捱夜及宵夜

Establishing a healthy lifestyle to stay fit while approaching middle age:


• Do aerobic exercise 3 to 5 times a week for at least 30 minutes each time to maintain your metabolism and muscle mass. Increase the frequency gradually according to your physical ability.
• Cut back on the frequency of eating out and seek advice from your registered dietitian about meal planning. In general, the estimated energy requirement for healthy adult men, weighed 65 – 70 kilograms, ranges from 1950 to 2100 calories.
• Select foods and beverages that are high in fibre but low in fat, sugar and sodium.
• Get enough sleep. Avoid staying up late and snacking mindlessly before bed.

如BMI於實踐生活改變後六個月亦未達標,註冊藥劑師建議考慮尋求醫生及藥物協助:


• 奧利司他(Orlistat):透過抑制胰酯及胃酯於消化道中分解甘油三酯,從而減少病人從食物中吸收的脂肪,需配合運動及飲食才可有降低體脂的功效。最常出現的副作用為脂肪瀉。以上藥物均需受過專業人士診斷方可使用,切勿自行服用。
• 手術:透過縮胃手術及胃繞道手術去減少食物吸收,詳情請諮詢醫生,一般只會用於嚴重病例。

註冊中醫師認為,男士中年過後,陽氣漸衰,無以溫化水濕,致水濕停滯而見發福。可藉中藥或針灸溫補脾腎,行氣除濕。同時,配合適度的運動,促進氣血運行。氣行則水行,故無水濕停滯之虞。

If BMI target is not met in 6 months after lifestyle modification, pharmacological intervention or medical help is recommended:


• Orlistat: Reduce fat absorption by reducing digestion of triglyceride in alimentary canal through inhibition of gastric and pancreatic lipase. Balanced diet and adequate exercise are required for lipid-lowering effect of the drug. One of the most common side effects is steatorrhea (oily diarrhea). Medications mentioned above should only be taken under supervision of healthcare professionals and should never administer without doctor’s instruction.
• Surgery: Reduce food absorption by gastrectomy or gastric bypass surgery. Surgery is usually reserved for patients suffering from severe obesity. Approach your private doctor for details.

註冊中醫師認為,男士中年過後,陽氣漸衰,無以溫化水濕,致水濕停滯而見發福。可藉中藥或針灸溫補脾腎,行氣除濕。同時,配合適度的運動,促進氣血運行。氣行則水行,故無水濕停滯之虞。

Registered Chinese medicine practitioners believe that yang qi of the middle-aged men is gradually fading, and there is no warming of the dampness, causing the dampness to stagnate and becoming fat. You can use traditional Chinese medicine or acupuncture to warm the spleen and kidney, and detoxify. At the same time, with appropriate exercises, promote blood and qi circulation.

特訓3: 大瞓特瞓

 

Training 3: Get a good night’s sleep

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睡眠質素與情緒有緊密關係。研究指,即使是短期的睡眠不足也會令人情緒容易波動,如易發脾氣、感到受壓、心力交瘁等。

 

Sleep quality and mood are closely connected. Studies indicated that even a single night of sleep deprivation has negative impacts on mood, such as being short-tempered, depressed, or exhausted etc.

要確保有充足優質睡眠,註冊營養師有以下改善生活習慣的建議:


• 多做讓心情放鬆的活動,如聽音樂、浸浴、到郊外/ 外地旅行等,紓緩生活或工作壓力引致精神緊張。
• 多飲清水,避免經常飲用含咖啡因飲品,如咖啡、濃茶、能量飲品、含咖啡因的有汽飲品等。
• 調整運動時間 – 有些人在晚上運動後,會因為身體處於興奮狀態而難以入睡,需要適當調節運動時間到早上或下午。

To ensure getting better quality and consistent sleep, our registered dietitians suggest making some simple lifestyle changes:


• Spend more time on relaxing activities, such as listening to music, taking a warm bath, traveling to countryside/oversea, may help relieve work-related anxiety or pressure in life.
• Stay hydrated; avoid drinking beverages containing caffeine, such as coffee, black tea, energy drinks, and caffeinated soft drinks etc.
• Modify exercise routine – People who have difficulty falling asleep after a nighttime exercise due to elevated heart rate, can consider switching their workout time from evening to morning or afternoon.

對於失眠,中醫學認為失眠易致陰虛火,心神受擾而煩躁不安,發脾氣。可藉中藥或針灸疏肝理氣,清心除煩。日常起居可沖泡花茶以疏肝解鬱,吐納靜觀以歛氣安神。


Chinese medicine believes that insomnia is easy to cause yin deficiency , anger and tempered. You can use traditional Chinese medicine or acupuncture to soothe the liver and clear your mind. In daily life, you can brew tea to soothe the liver and relieve depression.

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屈臣氏註冊營養師服務:https://www.watsons.com.hk/DietitiansService
屈臣氏註冊中醫師服務: https://www.watsons.com.hk/chinesemed
屈臣氏註冊藥劑師服務: https://www.watsons.com.hk/HEHAService

 

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