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維他命B12 與飲食 | 屈臣氏 Blog Watsons Blog

維他命B12 與飲食 Diet and Vitamin B12




Vitamin B12 is a water-soluble vitamin that plays important roles in different human metabolic processes. Vitamin B12 is required in the following processes:
.Red blood cell formation
.Neurological function
.DNA synthesis
.Hormone synthesis
.Fat and protein metabolism


Healthy adults’ Recommended Daily Allowances (RDAs) for Vitamin B12 are 2.4mcg for both men and women. Vitamin B12can naturally be found in animal products, but not in plant foods. Some breakfast cereals are fortified with Vitamin B12, which make them good sources of Vitamin B12 for strict vegetarians and vegans.

食物 每食用份量含量 (微克)
三文魚, 煮熟, 3安士 4.8
吞拿魚, 罐裝水浸, 3安士 2.5
早餐穀物, 添加維他命B12, 每食用份量 1.5
牛肉, 西冷, 烤熟, 3安士 1.4
牛奶, 低脂, 1杯 1.2
蛋, 烚熟, 1 隻 0.6
雞胸肉, 烤熟, 3安士 0.3


Food mcg per serving
Salmon, sockeye, cooked, 3 ounces 4.8
Tuna fish, light, canned in water, 3 ounces 2.5
Breakfast cereals, fortified, 1 serving 1.5
Beef, top sirloin, broiled, 3 ounces 1.4
Milk, low-fat, 1 cup 1.2
Egg, whole, hard boiled, 1 large 0.6
Chicken, breast meat, roasted, 3 ounces 0.3

天然食物中的維他命B12與蛋白質結合在一起,不能直接被吸收。胃液中的胃酸和蛋白酶需要把維他命B12從蛋白質中分隔出來,再結合gastric intrinsic factor (GIF) ,才能讓維他命B12被人體吸收及運用。若腸胃結構因人為或天然因素受損,維他命B12的吸收能力便會因此下降。一些有較高風險患上維他命B12缺乏症的族群包括:
.惡性貧血 (pernicious anemia) 患者
.腸病患者,如乳糜瀉 (celiac disease)、克隆氏症 (Crohn’s disease)



In nature, Vitamin B12 bounds to protein in food. Hydrochloric acid and gastric protease in our stomach are required to set Vitamin B12 free, and then free Vitamin B12 needs to combine with gastric intrinsic factor (GIF), which is also produced by our stomach, in order to be absorbed. When the structures of stomach or ileum are altered intentionally by surgeries or unintentionally by aging or by diseases, the efficiency of processing and absorbing Vitamin B12 will then be impacted. Some populations are at higher risk of Vitamin B12 deficiency than others:
.Older adults
.Individuals with pernicious anemia
.Individuals with gastrointestinal disorders, such as celiac disease and Crohn’s disease
.Individuals who have had gastrointestinal surgery, such as surgery to remove/ bypass all or part of the stomach, surgery to remove distal ileum
.Strict vegetarians and vegans

It is recommended that nutritional needs should be met primarily from foods. If you avoid fish, red meat, poultry, eggs and milk in your diet or simply dislike them all, or you fall into one of the at risk populations above, talk to your registered dietitian and health care provider to find out if you are consuming adequate Vitamin B12 in a regular basis.

資料來源:National Institutes of Health Office of Dietary Supplements,
Materials are adapted from National Institutes of Health Office of Dietary Supplements,